Milton A. Galamison emphasizes a need for a philosophical underpinning for advocacy and activism surrounding education reform, specifically as it pertains to desegregation and integration. He discusses the recently discredited (and legally overturned) “separate but equal” philosophy, and the long-term damages and traumas affected and exacerbated by segregation. Galamison is careful to note the relationship between segregated education and issues of fair housing, disparities in hiring and wages, and socio-economic inequality. He argues for a schedule and timeline for desegregation. He discusses the current pedagogy among activists and educators, which he describes as a kind of “if-ism,” that shifts responsibility for educational outcomes to situations and actors outside educators’ control. He also describes efforts to improve educational outcomes in segregated schools. During the question and answer period, Galamison responds to questions about 1962 US Senate candidate and New York City Council member James B. Donovan, the Princeton Plan, the New York City public schools boycott, the Black Islam movement and Malcolm X, the fiscal cost of integration, and the psychological trauma of segregation.